Ethics: "Ethical" or "Moral" Thought and Decision Making
A General Overview in Terms of
History, Neurophysiology, Psychology, Philosophy, Religion, Modern Standards, and Education
by Helmut Schwab, Princeton, NJ,  2003

Download the entire essay in Microsoft Word or click below on the paragraph you want to read
 

Abstract:
Ethics (morality) varies through history and between cultures.Common is a genetic base in caring for offspring and close relatives, reciprocity in caring with selected clan members, and readiness for sacrifice for the clan’s benefit.Learning augments the inclusion of others.Mental focus facilitates a weighing process in decision making.Extreme focus leads to heroism or obsession.Three philosophies compete; the ethics of maximum benefit, of individual protection, or of social balance.Modern ethics include human rights and environmental concerns.
 
Table of Contents:
1. Etymology and Definition 2. Evolutionary biology

3. Brain physiology

4. Psychology of ethical behavior

5. Philosophy 6. Religion 7. The ethical standards of our times