Meaning of Life

Eternity Views Evolution and Life on Earth

Concluding Observations

@ H. Schwab

                                                                                                                                                       061215 –  072519

Section 1 :  Origin and Existence

1.1.  Transcendental Origin of Existence and the Meaning of Our Lives                                          

1.2.  Addition: What after our death?                                                                                       

1.3.  Another addition: Is it a “pleasure” to watch existence – with all of its cruelty?        

1.4.  An additional important thought: We experience the “Evolution” of existence!        

1.5.  The “Intelligent Design Theory (IDT)”, wonders and miracles                                     

1.6.  “Ethics” – the structure of “Ethical” or “Moral” thought                                             

1.7.  The major dangers for the future of mankind                                                              

ü  Shortcomings of political leadership to resolve imminent dangers

ü  General pollution of air, water and all living space and all basic supplies

ü  Global Warming (contributing to the above)

ü  Population increase (contributing to the above)

ü  Appearance of antibiotic-resistant forms of life (fungi, bacteria, and more)


Section 2:  Evolution

2.1.  What was the evolution we observe?                                                                                

2.2.  Human contribution to evolution: “Ethics”, “Culture” and emotional values                                                     

2.3.  What has been the contribution to the guidance of mankind by the great religions  

2.4.  The guidance by political movements or organizations and their leaders                   

2.5.  How to realistically face the Great Dangers for mankind in the future                      

2.6.  Actual observation of Recent Evolution on Earth and immediate expectation           

2.7.  Now, a positive view of the Evolution of Existence:                                                           


Section 3 :  Conclusions 

3.1. Our understanding of “God”, the expectation by “Eternity” for us:                                   

3.2. Our “Goals” in Existence as part of the Evolution and in view of the Dangers             

3.3.  Here is the conclusion of this writing:              


3.4. My Contributions: View of the Universe and Evolution, Possible Danger Reduction


Section 1 :  Origin and Existence


  1.1.  Transcendental Origin of Existence and the Meaning of Our Lives


Following are concluding thoughts to the specifically rational, philosophical, theological, and  historical search of my mind and “soul” as presented in the various specific essays on this website  The following more general thoughts regarding the meaning of our lives  were written down late in my life in an ultra-religious view – meaning in a view beyond the human religions of historical origin – but, since written by a human, still anthropomorphic.

What could these conclusions then actually be?  Don’t many of us ask at the end of their lives (or already as teenagers) what the meaning of their life should be or was?  Few of us look beyond the horizon of their own immediate life.  We do, however, live in a much greater world, within the existence of our whole universe – and the cosmic infinity and timelessness beyond.

Thereby, these concluding thoughts are not written, like most religions and philosophies, in a view from a human out to the world and God, but in the opposite direction, from God, the Creator, the “Ultimate Spiritual Essence of Existence”, back or “down” to Earth and us humans.  


The basic “principle of causality” in all of observable existence indicates that, behind our existence, behind all existence, there must have been an “Existence-Causing, Ultimate Essence”.  Hence, prior to anything "existing", there must have been a “spiritual” phenomenon and, in that sense, not “physically” existing.  What else can we call it in our human words? 

We can rationally approach its understanding only by the fact that it caused existence as we know it and by analyzing such existence as in our universe – even though there may be other and different universes as well.

This “Ultimate Essence” is certainly beyond human understanding.

(A fish cannot understand the spirit of a bird – a bird cannot understand the spirit of a dog – a dog cannot understand the spirit of a human – a human cannot understand the abstract “spirituality” of God, the existence-causing “Ultimate Essence”, the “Eternity” – as we call it).


Was this “Ultimate Spiritual Essence of Existence” – which we here call “Eternity”, or “God”, or whatever else we call it – always alone – absolutely alone – in solitude – in all eternality and emptiness, whatever that was before time and space occurred?  …  always in solitude, alone? 



Did that lead to “creating” something – something “real” – now with the dimensions of time and space – something to watch, to observe, to take an interest in – our universe – possibly others – many others?

What would that mean for our role, purpose, or task within this creation here on our small Earth?  The smallness and the functioning of our “Earth” in its typical galaxy, the “Milky Way”, among so many others (some unusual) is increasingly explained to us by the natural sciences.


 How can we then – or should we – give meaning to our lives here – fulfill our lives – if permitted by fate?


Time and space occurred only when and through the creation of something “existing”, as we know the term – either in our universe or in any other one before or besides us – when something “changed” in “time” – and was “different” in then-originating “space” at a “here” from a “there” – in what became thereby what we call “existence”, a “reality” in time and space. 

Without those differences, the “phenomena” of time or space did or do not exist.  Both phenomena, time and space, were once new and became measurable.

We only know existence within time and three-dimensional space. Somewhere, however, existence could offer more, less, or different dimensions than are offered in our universe.


Outside of our universe (or another universe) “time” and “space” don’t exist – and neither before nor after this or another universe.


What does that mean for our understanding of “Eternity”, the Great Spirit, God, Allah?


What does that actually mean for our human thoughts of an “afterlife”, of our “souls” after death, of a “paradise” or a “hell”?  Can they really still be expected to exist?  How could that be?  Or, more likely and rationally indicated, do all these phenomena not “exist” at all? 


Does that put even more emphasis on the meaning of our temporal human life, our purpose, direction, goals, accomplishments, and what we can still contribute to this existence during the remaining time of our actual lives here on Earth?


Our created universe is, to the extent that we can observe it, relatively small and young when seen against the dimensions of eternity.  If the size of our Milky Way galaxy is seen – as one sees one of the many stars or galaxies on the nightly sky – as a mere pinhead within our great universe, then our whole universe has only a 300-meter diameter (if it had expanded from the moment of its creation, some 13.5 billion years ago, at the maximum speed possible in this universe, the speed of light – but possibly having expanded less, see the curvature of space under the influence of gravity as demanded by relativity theory, see the "black holes" in our universe) – and is only 4½ months old for us, if 1,000 of our years on Earth are seen as merely a second in the time of the evolution of our universe (but possibly less old on fast-moving parts of the universe, see the core of the relativity theory)! 

Why so small and why so young – with emptiness (actually “spacelessness”) and timelessness beyond our universe? 

What else would “Eternity” have created – and with what purpose there?


The planet we live on, our dear Earth, is only one tiny planet among billions in our galaxy, which we call the “Milky Way” due to its appearance to us at night, which, in turn, is only one of many millions or billions of galaxies in our universe! 

Are there several universes – now or at different times?  Do the same “laws of nature” apply within all galaxies and universes everywhere – and would “natural evolution” then turn out to be similar everywhere?  Or is creation possibly quite multifaceted in this universe and, more so, among all the other universes – if there are others? 


Now comes the important question: Did the creation of our universe merely occur for the “pleasure of God”, as ancient monks taught us to think – after all their historical pious contemplations – and as I was told at a monastery school, which I attended?

Is our purpose in life, therefore, to bring joyful “pleasure” to the ultimate “Spiritual Essence of Existence”, God, the “Eternity”, possibly the only observer from far beyond our small universe?

Go and plant a beautiful garden

Behave well!

Reduce suffering and bring more opportunities in life fairly to all!

Contribute a bit of joy and warmth – at least to the small area of the world around you!

Restrain bad politicians – and counter the other basic dangers to our existence


Creation as we know it – and are allowed to participate in – can be wonderful! 

We can be deeply grateful to be allowed to exist, to journey on Earth for the short duration of our lives – possibly also to be allowed to leave again!



1.2.  Addition: What after our death?


We, all of us, will have to die.  That is the way all life was “created” – to make room for the many later evolving and, possibly, better generations.

Will we still stand in front of God after our “death”?

Scientifically seen, this “still standing in front of God” could be by means of the science-demanded “conservation of information” in our universe – even in the remaining and ever-expanding radiation after the collapse or fading of our material universe, many billions of years from now – as certainly expected by modern science! 

Or will we remain merely as some “bits of memory” without the dimensions of time and space – after we possibly have left both of those dimensions when we “passed away” – an “eternal” afterlife then meaning the absence of time and space?  That would provide us with profoundly deep peace and harmony as we depart (and as I am grateful to once have sensed in a “near-death experience”!). 

What a most comforting thought that could be for so many of us!



1.3.  Another addition: Is it actually a “pleasure” to watch existence – with all of its cruelty?


Did the “Ultimate Spiritual Essence”, “Eternity”, God, actually create existence, as we know and experience it, merely for “His own pleasure”, as early monks formulated it?

Is the world we live in here on Earth actually something to observe with “pleasure”?


Every living being, humans included, is relentlessly attacked by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and predators (also by humans), and is aging and suffering!  That is how nature works!

Is it a pleasure to see a small child suffer from deformation or disease or in an accident?

Is it a pleasure to observe how many people fail in life and suffer?

Is it a pleasure to see an old person suffer from cancer or deep loneliness?

Is it a pleasure to see wolves hunt for graceful deer, lions tear apart beautiful gazelles, and, actually, all animals fear instant death by a predator all the time – while they actually feed themselves on other living beings, at least on plants?

Every living organism on Earth is made to live for only a very, very short time (on a cosmic scale) – then given to aging and death – for many a sad or cruel one!

It is not a “pleasure” to see political dictators or misguided religious leaders let their subjects suffer or kill them most cruelly – in battle, by their secret police, by some religious “inquisition” or “jihadism”, or by not allowing them any rational or medically relieving care – not being stopped in their evildoing by a transcendental force intervening from “above”. 

Are the desperate cries of all the many suffering ones not being heard above??


Different tribes on Earth have always led and do always lead wars against each other – while each side often prays to the same God for its own victory!  That is the way it was in European history and is now so intensely seen in the fighting between Sunni and Shia Muslims, between sects of those, or between Muslim “jihadists” and the West. 

Historically, European churches, especially when being end-points of pilgrimage trails, show many “votive” tablets indicating deep thanks for favorable divine response to their prayers. 

But where are the many, many reminders that would be needed for urgent prayers not having been heard and tragic consequences then suffered? 

Is our religion only one of the winners in life?  


Is watching this kind of existence on Earth not similar to watching variously armed gladiators fight for survival – or innocent Christian martyrs being killed – in the ancient Roman Colosseum arena, as Roman emperors actually did watch this for their “pleasure”?

One can be very scared and saddened by this view of the world and of an “Eternity” – of a “Creator” – where no “loving Father” can be found above – whom our soul so often longs for!


Is this the remaining dual view of God, of “Eternity”, in positive and negative terms?

Is that the reason why Zoroaster developed his philosophy of the struggle between good and evil, continued by Mandaeism, then the “Satan” and “Lucifer” concept continued in Christianity (and still in Goethe’s “Faust”)?

            Where do we so hopelessly stand with our concept of “God”, “Eternity”, or what we ultimately believe in – or want to believe in – and where do we find guidance for our lives?  



1.4.  An additional important thought: We experience the “Evolution” of existence!


There is an especially important and significant difference between the Roman Arena and our actual world! 


Our universe was created with the phenomenon of the dynamics of change – showing an evolution – not only in astronomical and geological observations but, more importantly, right where we are, here on Earth, in nature as well as in human society – during our observable lives


Could it be that “Eternity”Godis watching Earth as it is not for His “pleasure”, but, given the excitement of an “evolution”, is watching or “observing” Earth for His “interest”, whatever that means – to see what is coming out of that evolutionary experiment presenting material, mental, and also emotional evolution in our part of our universe - or anywhere else? 


Our universe was started at the time of the Big Bang, 13.5 billion years ago, simply by the occurrence of an enormous amount of energy at one spot.  With its expansion and cooling, this was leading to the appearance of a few specific, “material”, subatomic building blocks (see the “string theory”) and a few specific forces (and principles) of nature acting on them following specific “laws of nature” (including quantum mechanical uncertainty). 


Most important in the phenomenon of this creation is the fact that these original building blocks could, in time, combine – to form ever larger and ever more complex new building blocks – finally gaining self-caused motion – “life” – a mind – emotions, visualizations, science, inventiveness, language, and ethics – cultures! 


But this evolution did not progress evenly.  After the origin of our universe some 13.5 billion years ago, at least two major steps occurred.  The original world consisted only of light elements (see the system of about 90 naturally occurring but actually 118 elements in our universe, presented by science in an order of increasing mass).  After possibly 4 billion years, a period of combinations or collapses may have led to the formation of the heavier elements, including iron (or gold).  This allowed the formation of heavier celestial bodies, as our sun – with often a variety of smaller satellites as their “planets”, some consisting of heavy elements, as does “Earth”.

The very primitive first forms of life we know did occur only 9 billion years after the birth of our universe, shortly after our Earth (and possibly or, most likely, others) appeared. 


The progress toward the modern world continued very slowly thereafter.  Important innovations (as genetics) and their functioning had to appear, possibly in some variety.  Then, rather late, came the origin and development of animals – first in the oceans, later also on the dry surfaces of Earth – with brains to help them maneuver successfully, later for their own creative thought!  What a grandiose universe to observe this became, specifically here on our Earth!


This view would lead to the conclusion that such an evolution is not predetermined in its outcome and that God does not foresee everything in the future – which would render meaningless such watching or observation of material existence and evolution in our or any other universe. 


But an assumption of a not-predetermined evolution would make divine intervention in cruel developments that much more desirable!


The absence of divine intervention in events leading to cruel consequences can truly be seen as the darkest mystery of existence!  Why do tsunamis surprise poor fishing villages on the oceans’ shores?  Why did the World Wars start in civilized Europe?  Why did Hitler mysteriously escape several assassination attempts – and the Holocaust occur?  Why do all the very bad things happen, which later fill history books but are already reported in detail by the newspapers every single day?

God, have mercy upon us!!!


Yes, there is also light, as well as happiness, warmth, and beauty in this world to be grateful for!  May they ultimately prevail in evolution!  Could that be the meaning of our evolution? 


What can we do and what should we do with our lives in this world?



1.5.  The “Intelligent Design Theory (IDT)”, wonders and miracles


Scientists always noticed how amazingly complex, but also surprisingly practical, efficient, and innovative many parts of higher organisms are structured, even though they originated in a relatively short time during their “natural” evolution.

This resulted in the question if it was not actually the “Creating Essence” after all, which not only caused the “original creation” and determined its potential for evolution, and then let everything proceed freely – but whether this “Creating Essence” possibly still added later occasionally, or even very often, some very good construction ideas. 

That was called the “Intelligent Design Theory”. 

Just look at the construction of the eye or the ear in detail!

Or one should look at the origin of the feather, the poison ejecting sting of insects, the uniqueness of some other living beings – of some exotic insects (for example, the various mantis sub-species, the Glyptapanteles wasps). or the special forms of some mammals (for example, anteaters) – or begin your observation simply with the structure and functioning of a virus!


The essay “Intelligent Design Theory” on the website discusses in detail the question of a possible later “intelligent design”, providing inputs into ongoing evolution by the “Creating Essence” (still on-going inputs could also be observed) – as seen from the point of view of the sciences and of theology.


The theological conclusion is that a faith in ongoing divine inputs or interference with natural evolution cannot be justified – especially since one must see that those new designs have often led to the most cruel consequences, especially for the prey of the favored organisms.


The view would have to be that the ongoing divine interferences with evolution always were to the benefit (but, actually, they were also often to the disadvantage) and the support (if not elimination) of the specifically impacted species of living organism!

 Actually, one has to see both directions of impact!


Does this also mean that the appearance of “ethics” among us humans (and other animals that live in packs) was meant specifically for our benefit (or of those animals)?

Are we comfortable with hacking down extensive wooded areas and depriving all the other animals living there of their source of food and shelter?  How do we, actually, treat all horses, cattle, chicken, and other animals once they are domesticated?


Race tolerance is also something quite new in our social evolution!


Regarding “Intelligent Design”:  A “wonder” is a phenomenon defined and of importance in some religions and is a requirement for the “sanctification” of a catholic person.

“Wonders” are seen in the healings against all medical expectation after intense prayer by divine intervention – or in the acts reported from the life of Jesus – thereby impacting “natural” evolution.


Numerous pious people in need travel long distances in “pilgrimages” to Lourdes in France or Fatima in Portugal, where “holy” visions had occurred and “wondrous” healings had occasionally been reported.  Most pilgrimages, however, do not bring results.


This healing by faith led to the founding of the “Church of Christ Scientist”, which teaches the curing of diseases not by medical doctors, but by prayer and resulting divine intervention.


In any event, God’s interference with human suffering as seen from time to time to depend upon personal prayer – or upon interference of a saintly person with God in requesting His help – would have to be seen as divine interference with natural functioning of evolution. 


Science and rationality have found some psychological explanations for some of those wonders – but that did not totally clarify all “pious” minds or the Catholic church.  


A "miracle” is a phenomenon and linguistic term quite similar to a “wonder”, but also used commonly in not-religious situations or events.  In other words, a “miracle” is an event that happens against all probability and expectation and does not find explanation – or is simply a verbal expression of surprise.


There are the events described as “extrasensory perception”, which clearly border on being seen as “miracles” beyond the common natural sciences, but seldom as religious “wonders”.  The most touching such events were the occasional “taking leave” apparitions of soldiers just killed during wartime (most famously during World War II in distant places).  In such reported cases, the wife of the just killed soldier, at her secure home, suddenly sees her soldier husband standing silently in front of her – then disappearing again.  Thus, she learned that he had just been killed.


My own mother, some 80 years ago, was in harmonious company at her home when she suddenly declared that her husband, my father, must have had a bad accident.  She remained very excited until the phone call came a couple of hours later announcing that accident, but also that my father had barely survived and now was in good care at a hospital.


“Extrasensory perception” has been scientifically researched but never explained.  It does not enter the discussion of divine interference with evolution.


What image of “God” would result from all of that?

Can one address God – and does God respond to our cries for help?

Observation indicates that both are not clear – and only selectively observed!


What remains is our great thankfulness if our life passes bearably or even quite positively – with some joy and warmth – and with so much beauty to observe in nature and art!


Thus, the question of IDT and wonders is not fully resolved (how would our religion then be, if we accept IDT?). Science wants to see only rational evolution, resulting in a view of the world without IDT and an open opinion about wonders. 


We are concerned about too often missing divine interference when it could result in avoiding great evil and we keep praying for occasional divine interference – which seldom arrives!

We always urgently pray for divine interference against the most cruel threats – and are tempted to always rationally explain even highly unusual design changes in nature! 



1.6.  Ethics – the structure of “Ethical” or “Moral” thought


As finally higher animals and humans appeared on Earth, some important manners of behavior appeared with them.  Especially those animals and, later, the humans living in family groups or clans  developed coherence as controlled by “ethics”

The essay “The Structure of Ethical thought” in the segment of “The Human Brain/Mind” on the website “” discusses in detail the functioning and significance of Ethics in the evolutionary progression of group animals and, specifically, humans.  Moral behavior, honor, duty, and, mainly, basic ethics are discussed – and their opposites or inversions, too.  There are the questions of stability or variability of individual personality – mainly the multiplicity of ethical expressions.

Ethics (morality) varies through history and between cultures.  Common is a genetic base in caring for offspring and close relatives, reciprocity in caring with selected clan members, and readiness for sacrifice for the clan’s benefit.  Learning augments the inclusion of others.  Mental focus facilitates a weighing process in decision making.  Extreme focus leads to heroism or obsession.  Three philosophies compete:  the ethics of maximum benefit, of individual protection, or of social balance. 

Besides this ethics of “caring” for other group members (with revenge for assumed neglect forming the opposite), humanity is vastly controlled by the ethics of organized societies, obeying the command of a leader – with treason or betrayal forming the opposite..

In advanced societies, priests of their respective religions assume the definition and application of ethics and add some mundane priorities of their own choosing, as in (often cruelly) maintaining their own power, preference for food and clothing – and in demanding monetary contributions to religious administrations – namely to “churches” or “temples”.

The world of business demands regulations and a plethora of corresponding laws – promptly investigated for possible “loopholes”;

Does “humor” constitute the easy end of group behavior – with “ridiculing” somebody forming the corresponding opposite?

Modern ethics include human rights and environmental concerns.

See further detailed discussion below!


1.7.  The major dangers for the future of mankind


Considering the great effort “Eternity” provided in establishing our existence, it is surprising, that our basic existence is threatened by several imminent developments on Earth.

The elimination of early forms of life, as the Trilobites and, later, the Dinosaurs may be explained by their shortcomings and a limited patience of “Eternity” with their delaying further evolution.  But humans had only a very short time of existence in this world so far – about only 0.1 % of the time of existence of our universe. Corrections of development of humans could still be accomplished in response to major dangers as listed below.  We humans are mostly responsible for clearly defining and urgently correcting our course as these dangers approach!


The main imminent dangers to mankind’s existence are:

1.     The shortcomings of political leadership to guide and to successfully resolve imminent dangers (including civil unrest and wars)

2.     General pollution of air, water and all living space and all basic supplies

3.     Global Warming (contributing to the above)

4.     Population increase (contributing to the above)

5.     Appearance of antibiotic resistant forms of life (fungi, bacteria, and more) – with no solution in sight, presenting possibly the greatest challenge to the sciences, and to international cooperation!



Section 2:  Evolution  – more detail


2.1.  What was the evolution we observe?


We do not know how many universes already occurred or existed before or alongside ours.

If they started and, subsequently, also changed size, form or content, then they had an evolution, too.

We do not know how many evolutions of actually living nature have already occurred on other planets in our own universe.  If there are other forms of higher existence on other planets, they must also have formed through an evolution – as those planets formed out of dust, first being very hot, then cooling and, finally, allowing life to form and evolve on them over time.


We do not know what such other evolutions have resulted in.  Just look at the variety of cultures, languages, or religions and the progress of science and technology that evolved just recently within a short time on Earth!

So far, we do not know of any learning of one evolution from another, more advanced one somewhere else in our universe (as we have international learning here on Earth), to save trouble or time in reaching a “better world” – or, merely, to gain power. 


“Eternity” could not “want” to observe the same evolution on various planets over and over again, possibly billions of times!


Our evolution started with our universe about 13.5 billion years ago, originally forming the light elements as Hydrogen and Helium, then increasingly heavy ones. 


Earth originated about 9 billion years later, about 4 billion years ago.  Earth contains large amounts of iron, also gold and some mercury, all “heavy” elements, as are created only when original “suns” exhaust their energies and collapse.  Thus, Earth belongs to the second generation of celestial bodies, having appeared during the last two-thirds of the presently observable evolution of our universe.


Basic life occurred rather shortly after the appearance of Earth and its cooling, about 4 billion years ago.  The evolution of DNA-controlled genetics, facilitating the multiplication of three-dimensional bodies, is the greatest accomplishment of this next time period in evolution!

The genetically defined life evolved into a great variety of species – and also into ever greater complexity. 


The formation of the necessary complex molecules in living organisms requires energy.  The mysteriously formed chlorophyll molecule can absorb solar energy and make the captured energy available to further chemical progress in new organisms.

At the same time, oxygen is set free, which then rises to the surface of early oceans or stagnant waters, accumulating in the original atmosphere there.

These were the great accomplishments of several billion years of early evolution


About 13 billion years after the origin of our universe, only about 500 million years ago – during less than the last 15% of Earth’s evolution or only the last 3% of universal evolution – a new and modern form of life originated on the surface of Earth.  The atmospheric oxygen was absorbed by the new organisms and combined with the large amount of carbon found in older organisms, which had to be caught and digested, thereby liberating the necessary energy for the formation of new molecules – as formerly by chlorophyll (now through a form of burning).

These new organisms, then being called “animals”, needed mobility to reach the food provided by swallowing other organisms, when their immediate surrounding was harvested.  That required mobility and sensors to guide the mobility.  Also, conflict arose with other searching organisms – getting into fights for life or death, with the development of suitable tools (claws, teeth, stings).  That very late and “recent” phase of evolution was when the Earth became for a globally short time a center of cruelty, as among the “dinosaurs”!


As a surprise of nature, then an extinction of most of all that cruel life occurred once more some 60 million years ago, caused by volcanoes or other geological events (most likely the Daccan Traps in India!) or, as commonly assumed, by a large meteorite impact! 


The last 0.5% of our world’s evolution or 3% of our Earth’s evolution began, then  suddenly accelerating! 

Now, finally, the more sophisticated mammals appeared, bringing forth “humans”.  This occurred only some few hundred-thousand years ago, during less than the last 0.01% of evolution on Earth.  In other words, evolution accelerated toward the appearance of the more sophisticated structures or, now, development of higher capabilities of organisms – as if now moving from hardware to software development in electronics and the internet!


What does that say about “Eternity”, God?


With humans, the mind occurred – primitive at first in animals, but with enormous capabilities in later “humans” – in intelligence and also emotions! – leading to sensing “values” in our lives – and, in further significant steps of evolution,  leading to “visualization” and language, permitting and supporting sophisticated, organized thought and innovation!  May this indicate a direction of “evolution”, hopefully continuing – hopefully in a morally positive direction ! 


But beware of some political leaders, “Global Warming”, and overpopulation on Earth. and antibiotic resistant forms of life,!  On Earth, evolution brought those unforeseen dangers! 


Following the basic system of evolution, all organisms multiply – too much and beyond the availability of supporting environments – with some minor variations in their offspring. That is the mysterious “trick” of evolution – because those among the newest organisms that were better adapted to the conditions of their lives survived and multiplied more, the others suffered more, were crowded out, faded away.

If one among the various individuals of a new generation of a certain type of organisms or animals is qualified to raise 3 youngsters in each generation (while the other youngsters starve, die of disease, or are eaten by predators) and another, only slightly different one, is qualified to successfully raise 5 youngsters in each following generation, then, after only 4 generations, the one less gifted “species” could have 81 successors and the new and better gifted one could have 625 successors, thus crowding out the first species and forming a new one – in such a short time.   


Mate selection by females based on indications of strength or feeding capability of the males was the other selection criterion – and one that often became (and still can be) quite misleading!  Watch out, you maidens!


The human population grows rapidly.  Soon and in many parts of the world this growth will exceed favorable survival opportunities.  Yet, contraception or other methods of birth control among humans are still most irresponsibly rejected by some religious and political leaders!  (The history of the Easter Islands is a warning example of the catastrophic end of unlimited population growth)


Wake up! What catastrophe will evolution otherwise have to bring?  Who will survive?



2.2.  Human contribution to evolution: “Ethics”, “Culture” and emotional values


Humans became the organisms here on Earth that not only observe and understand, but also forcefully and skillfully intervene in the course of their own life, of history, and of evolution. 

Our attempt to act upon the world we observe is meant to change it in our favor.

Can we actually contribute “positively” to evolution?

What does “Eternity” possibly expect from us or would observe with “pleasure”?


What does human history indicate thus far?

With the evolution of the mind, emotions occurred – and, with emotions, “values” of “good” or “bad”, presenting a new dimension in the evolution of existence, “ethics”, as we call it! 

This “ethical” behavior allowed the upbringing of the next generation through sacrifice and guidance by their parents.  “Ethical” behavior (meaning “not primarily selfish”) allowed for efficient group action – as to kill larger hunting targets or defend against nasty neighbors – then, later, to implement larger and larger irrigation projects – eventually leading to large communities with their hierarchical structures and “governance” – which then, too often, was of most doubtful value for the whole community (see bad leaders, rogue states, violent or suppressive religions, and similar destructive or violent organizations!).   


Does evolution still miss an important step – the formation of benevolent and also efficient government, be it political or religious – for the avoidance of all the suffering that humans bring to each other – in daily life and society – often culminating in cruel suppressions or wars?


There are actually various systems or types of “ethics” or of ethical behavior.  Most surprisingly, their opposites also exist, in “counter-ethics” (not sufficiently studied by neurology, psychology, philosophy, or theology thus far)

       There is the above-indicated naturally evolved system of ethics, as having been formed by natural evolution through millions of years with higher animals – formed by nature and only later, in hindsight, recognized and formulated by leaders or religious priests.  This system of ethical behavior and thought provides naturally for the selfless care of offspring, for friendship between a few self-selected individuals, and for self-sacrificing dedication to family, clan, or local society (also in “patriotism”) – all of this providing group coherence to define and solve the tasks of a larger society – but with emotional counter-ethical “rage” and “revenge” too often disrupting all goodness, when provoked. 

       There are the ethics of structured society, with emphasis on loyalty and obedience to the leader, courage to do what is asked of you, trustworthiness, discipline, and the value of “honor” – and the reverse in betrayal requiring punishment, shame and “shunning” exclusion, or need for “satisfaction” – all of these prevailing in military and other large organizations, also, very importantly, in business enterprises.  Most people want to belong to a structured group, to feel "at home" there.  This is also expressed in patriotism, then abused by all dictatorial leaders.

       There are forms of religiously defined ethics, first found in the laws of Urukagina, then Jesiah, then more humanely defined by Jesus – as in the “Beatitudes” of the Sermon on the Mount – see the essay on “Biblical Beatitudes” on this website  The “Beatitudes” emphasize 4 values: The appreciation of the insignificant person, the generous donation to others, the peace-making, and a “clean heart”. 

       These religiously defined ethics were sooner or later directed by priests, leading the definition of ethics back to beliefs in a specifically defined God or Allah (if not to the dominance of those priests), sometimes also including laws governing diet, circumcision, and clothing – all superimposed by demands resulting from the structure of their respective communities and their religious leadership, as in military structures. Their opposite is seen in “sin”, “guilt”, in occasionally unbelievable cruelty (e.g. the Aztecs, then the Catholic “inquisition”, condemnation of nonbelievers, who were to be killed with impunity – as is now done in the Muslim world). 

       There are the vast ethics of rational societies with “civic or human rights” – and of “the business world” – since the time of the Romans strictly founded on ever more and changing, written “laws” – with the opposite in searching for “loopholes” and in cheating. 

       Finally, there is the minor form of ethics in helpful speech (called courtesy), as in saying “please”, “thank-you”, or “excuse me” – which, in its “offensive” opposite, can be quite damaging.  “Humor” may be seen as being on the border of “ethics” – with its inversion in “ridiculing” somebody. 

       The “philosophy of ethics” attempts to provide a rational understanding of this complex field of human mental engagement.  Contradictions are being analyzed as the preference for the greatest good for most people versus absolute ethics valid for each one – or for justification of actions only by their ethical outcome (see the bombing of civilians in cities to end wars). 


So far, however, the need to analyze the variety of ethical systems (see above) or their interaction and, mainly, their respective “counter-ethicshas been neglected!


In practical life, we all can change instantly from behaving according to one system of ethics to another system – for example, when driving home from business, where we had tried to maximize profit within legal constraints, then getting emotional when irritated in traffic, finally being the benevolent parent during an evening at home – or when young men drifting through life decide to patriotically join the military (in the past, they were put into monasteries to become monks) – or become “radicalized” and find a “type-2” ethical home in a jihadist group!


Ethics improves the world – which then supports more ethics – in a very slow, upward spiral through historic evolution.


What else do humans contribute to this world?

Primarily, one must mention progress in the sciences and technology – and their application to practically everything – from kitchen products to skyscraper buildings or rockets to the moon, or computers with the Internet.  This progress has been leading to, or was based, on a deeper understanding of how our existence functions – from physics, chemistry, and medicine to psychology, relativity theory, and quantum mechanics.


It is fascinating to “observe” this accelerating progress retroactively through the study of history (as it may have been “observed from above”) – from Thales of Miletus or Pythagoras to the enormous aqueducts of the Romans, later to Galileo’s telescopes and Newton’s beginning of physics, the accelerating 19th century, to progress then driven by World Wars I and II, to computers and the internet, and our time of accelerating STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics).  What may occur next? 


Is “Eternity” observing Earth with fascination – or with concern?


A not understandable “gift” by creation occurred in evolution through the appearance of the emotional assessment of “beauty”, first developed in some animals, then in humans – specifically in some of our better societies on Earth, which we call “cultures”.  Poetry occurred, as did music – to touch our “souls” – as in the “Ode to Joy” with Schiller’s poetry and Beethoven’s music – offering “joy” as the crowning goal of life on Earth!  Read the text in a good translation and listen to the music in a moment of calm! This Ode became Europe's anthem!

There also occurred the even less understandable gift by creation to us humans, the highest forms of life, in the sensing of “humor”.  Laughter can solve many problems, letting us appear more human to each other (but, therefore, laughter is avoided by those who want to project their highest “dignity”, as emperors, dictators, and supreme religious leaders).


In sum:  Should we humans be – are we humans – able to reliably follow some system of ethics in order to at least partially generate a somewhat “better” world – with a little less suffering and with some better opportunities fairly for all? 


Where will the progress of science and technology, driven by financial interests, lead us?


The large number of privately funded charitable organizations in America and Europe and their public support gives some hope!


Should we not, actually and openly, strive for more harmony, joy, and warmth in this world – possibly even for a bit of humor – to spread basic joy?


Is the generation of economic well-being, mainly reduction of suffering and increase of opportunities fairly for all, of a not only economically and technically but, mainly, ethically and aesthetically “better” world, the purpose and possible fulfillment of our lives and expected contribution to the evolution of “existence” – as to be observed and possibly expected by Eternity?    

Why is our political leadership not consistently qualified to lead mankind to a better world?



2.3.  What has been the contribution to the guidance of mankind by the great religions?


In the search for guidance on its journey through existence on Earth, to possibly accomplish a positive evolution, mankind looked to “God” and searched in religions for guidance. But why have the great religions of mankind failed to provide better guidance – to avoid all the horrors in the world during historical times?  Did God not speak (merely letting the experiment of evolution in our universe’s “existence” run its course), or did mankind not listen correctly? Or does the problem lie in mankind not following the benevolent religious rules?  Would a return to strict religious fundamentalism resolve all problems, as many Muslims now believe – in a reversal of evolution and in ending the divine experiment of evolution in our universe?  Unlikely – and dangerous, too!

It is always easier to criticize other religions than one’s own, the religion one “believes” in. That is also the way the followers of other religions feel.


The Hindu religion originally resulted from the deepest searching thoughts of mankind and not from any hallucinatory vision of a religious founder.  But this evolved, or deteriorated, into a variety of sects with a multiplicity of anthropomorphic religious deities or concepts – some appearing as superstitions.  This may result in overlooking the depth of original Hindu thinking and searching.


Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam – all three – resulted from “hallucinations” of their founders, as the rational mind would define it – actually attempting to read God’s will – or merely reflecting their own – within their culture at that time. 

Buddhism allows the follower to reach the sensation of “enlightenment” from intensive meditation, then leading to the believed state of an ultimate “nirvana” of mind and body.  A critical view could overlook the beneficial effect of liberation from materialism and self-centered thought of a Buddhist attitude. This allowed Buddhists to develop a culture of monasteries where monks searched for enlightenment and nirvana – but, actually, lived on contributions by the working population – while the rulers of their countries continued to fight for expansion of the area of their dominance – now leaving China with the greatest colonial empire on Earth, including some Mongolian territory, all its western Uighur territories, Tibet, and, as now demanded by them, the South China Sea.


Many Christians find salvation in the vision of Christ’s resurrection from the grave and ascension into heaven – witnessed by only a few followers – and propagated by St. Paul after his own vision.  In this approach, some Christians see their faith in those miracles – as a way to reach paradise through forgiveness of all sins simply through “faith”.  The most important contribution of the young Jesus of Nazareth, however, the preaching during his short life, is put in second place – his most humane teaching of a life of “Christian love” and service to one’s fellow men – in personal modesty, through merciful help, as a peacemaker, and in attempting to have a “clean heart” (see the essay on the biblical “Beatitudes” on the website

Christians had their own period of not always peaceful missionary activity in Germany and Europe’s East, of crusades and colonization in the Americas.  Worse than that were the periods of the Inquisition and the burning of all infidels and “witches”.  The Pope continues to prohibit all forms of contraception, leading to great suffering in the poorest countries, where his commands are obeyed – while failing to inhibit vast political misuse of power and corruption, especially in Catholic countries.


Muhammad experienced from time to time (over a dozen years), while ascetically contemplating in a remote cave, the vision of an angel as a messenger from God with revelations to communicate to his followers.  These individual visions were without a specific structure, each pronounced in a multitude of individual verses – which followers may take out of context and pursue single-mindedly, sometimes not to the best of the world (see the designation of “apostates”, which then have to be killed, as also the followers of other Muslim sects simply declared as “infidels”). 

It can easily be overlooked that Muhammad’s first great accomplishment was the restructuring and management of the town later called Medina.  Several family clans fought there violently, the rich abused the poor, and women held a degraded rank in society.  He made all citizens equal (as in our modern democracies), restrained their abuses (harems had to be limited to only four wives), and, most importantly, granted previously degraded women some important rights – as in inheritance ownership and the right to divorce.  Later in his life, however, large-scale conquest and warfare changed Muhammad’s visions and personality in an increasingly dangerous way – see some of the most cruel verses contained in the last visions he had during his life (when following the actually valid Nöldeke-sequence of the Surahs, not their sequence in the Qur’an) – see the essay “Can Islam Shine Again?” on the website :


ü  Surah K 8   = N 95,  V 12  (13)

ü  Surah K 4   = N 100,  V 89-91  (92)

ü  Surah K 33 = N 103.  V 60-61  (62)

ü  Surah K 9   = N 113,  V 5  (6)


Islam still needs a reformation and adaptation to actual conditions in the modern world.  By now, Islam is the center of all horrible violence in our days, from the Taliban to Al Qaeda and DAESH/ISIL.  What is so basically wrong with Islam and the Qur’an, their holy book, that this can occur – unopposed by most of the Muslim clergy?  Why can Islam not direct all youthful, idealistic activism into a more benevolent direction, as the Peace Corps once did – for example, under the words which actually are the first of most Surahs, “merciful and beneficent”?


None of the three greatest religious founders actually wrote a book of practical guidance for the following religious or political governance of the world – which, most likely, would have to be adapted to local cultural and human conditions and adapted from time to time to evolving civilization.  

At best, Moses’ 10 Commandments, Jesus’ “Benedictions” of the Sermon on the Mount, and Muhammad’s Farewell Sermon could be seen in this context.  


Mankind has not found a valid source for all for guidance in mankind’s journey through the evolution of existence in our universe here on Earth. 


Should we not primarily attempt to contribute positively to evolution, especially now, in its most dynamic phase – to let it appear more interesting – if not enjoyable to the Great Viewer, “Eternity”, to observe from above?

Does it make sense to seek – we actually must seek – an understanding of the ultimate “Creative Essence of Existence”, from which our universe and existence came, whatever name we give it, “Eternity”, “God”, or “Allah”?  Hopefully, this could provide us with better guidance or direction (if not meaning) for our own lives in the course of natural and cultural evolution as we experience it and to which we could contribute.



2.4.  The guidance by political movements or organizations and their leaders


The large and, by now. interwoven human society on Earth necessarily found Type-2 Ethics of practical leadership as the guiding mental force – as in democracies of many kinds and in more or less developed or beneficial dictatorships.

In other words, the guidance of human society – and evolution – results from  the prevalent political organizations and their leaders – be it Switzerland, the USA, or Hitler, Putin and Kim Yong Un.  The level of education and prevalent social ideals may play a role in the rise and dominance of those.

The forces at work and the resulting evolution on Earth is not rationally optimized – even contains various risks of extinction by the Great Dangers as separately discussed.



2.5.  How to realistically face the Great Dangers to mankind in the future

The Great Dangers to mankind’s survival were mentioned before:

1.     The shortcomings of political leadership to guide and to successfully resolve imminent dangers (including civil unrest and wars)

2.     General pollution of air, water and all living space and all basic supplies

3.     Global Warming (contributing to the above)

4.     Population increase (contributing to the above)

5.     Appearance of antibiotic resistant forms of life (fungi, bacteria, and more) – with no solution in sight, presenting possibly the greatest challenge to the sciences, and to international cooperation!


It is obvious that only well coordinated strategies and coordinated tactical action could properly address those dangers – but that is precisely lacking in modern human society on Earth.  Each political unit is concentrated on its own advantage – in power, military or, simply, business position.

The greatest accomplishments of the last few hundred years were – after the formation of Switzerland already in 1292!  - the formation of the “United” States of America in 1776.  The horrible World War I brought the Europeans to form the United Nations – with no effect on distant countries as China and, now, North Korea – and very limited effect on Russia under Putin.

How can it be that, now, Great Britain wants to leave the European Unit (the Brexit)?

The Middle East, once fractured (from Tunisia to Iraq, Iran and more) lives in constant turmoil and war – as, by now, almost typical for the Muslim world.

Any attempt by some countries to minimize political dangers in a political hot-spot is responded by addressing the actual adversity of one by supporting the other side.  Whenever the United States attempts to influence one side in a conflict, for example now in Venezuela, Putin’s Russia and Xi’s China will support the opposite side in order to give more trouble to the USA.

It has not been possible to establish true world coordination! 

May the United Nations one day discover the secret of world prosperity!


Only the danger of the appearance of antibiotic-resistant biological units (including fungi) succeeds in uniting at least the world of the scientists – without politically divisive considerations.  Or will, one day, antibiotic resistant materials be treated as the atomic materials of our days – to be placed by secret agents or shot by rockets into enemy territories – to kill their crops, their animals, and, last, their people – without drifting back into one’s own territory, though!


2.6.  Actual observation of Recent Evolution on Earth and immediate expectation:


How did the evolution on Earth actually progress after the appearance of higher organisms (as us, the humans) – with higher values, ethics, many religions, aesthetics, and humor?


The actual observation of evolutionary progress on Earth does not correspond to the mental progress of human society.  As in a wave pattern, positive periods of rational progress fade into periods of emotional and political instability, too often into violence and wars, before new rationality and progress returns.


Following are observations how recent evolution progressed on Earth after the appearance of science and technology, higher values, ethics, many religions, aesthetics, and humor.


Specifically, why was evolution to a “better” world so slow, too often cruelly interrupted and endangered by counter-movements or, in human society, by destructive wars? Could better guidance capability for mankind and, mainly, better governance capability on Earth – have helped?

Conditions on Earth are still rather negative for too many people, as ignorance and poverty occur, combined with personality weakness, and political corruption continues – and always new wars.  What is wrong with evolution?  Does the divine experiment with evolution work well?  Did the world get better and become “more pleasurable to observe” by Eternity? 


Or must another “extinction” on Earth be preferred by “Eternity” and, then, continuation with still higher living beings, as happened before?


            To better understand mental or ethical evolution, one could analyze the evolution up to our time in the West, of ancient Mesopotamia after Urukagina, or of the Middle East after Muhammad. 


In the West, original Christian ethics led to ending the cruelties of Roman arenas, as in the Colosseum (after Christian martyrs were the last to be killed there for the glory or “pleasure” of emperors and Roman gods)!  

But the following period of peace within the Roman Empire was short.  Very soon, “religious” wars began – at first, and after some hesitation, only defensively against the attacking enemies of the Christians – supposedly for the “pleasure” of “God”. 

Later, however, wars were conducted between Christian subgroups.  The formulation and imposition of a common “Creed” for all Christians under Emperor Constantine in 325 CE at Nicea failed.  The last and especially cruel intra-Christian war in Europe was of 30 years duration in Germany, ending with another plague around 1650 AD.

During all those Christian centuries, mighty rulers and nations felt free to conduct wars against each other for territorial expansion or material benefit. Especially cruel were the First World War and the actions of the ensuing political dictators, leading to the Second World War and all the ideological movements (from Hitler to Stalin to Mao Tse Tung to Pol Pot and more!) – when many millions of people were tortured and killed – also by the most cruel bombing of civilian areas in times of political conflict in Europe – first of walled cities in the Middle Ages, lately beginning with the bombing of Guernica 1937 in Spain, then London and other British towns, culminating in the firestorm bombing of Dresden and, more so, the atomic bombings in Japan.


Now it is the Muslim world that leads the cruelest fighting and killing, all in the name of the same “Allah” as seen by their different religious sects – today, mainly between the Sunni and Shia and between subsections of those. 

Why is their holy book, the Qur’an, so inadequate to clearly guide Muslims along a benevolent path – as was at times the Bible in guiding Christians?! (See the essay “Can Islam Shine Again” on this website, citing mainly the four most violent verses in the Qur’an perpetuating Muslim violence – if not overcome one day by a reformation of that faith ending the Quranically justified violence – which should be demanded by the world before Islam is accepted as a common religion in our midst).


Equally dangerously, new dictators replace democracy in a growing number of countries – a general in Egypt, Putin in Russia, Erdogan in Turkey, Assad and his possibly more dangerous brother in Syria, the Ayatollah in Iran, the increasingly dictatorial president Xi of China, Duterte in the Philippines, and, worst, Kim Jong-un in North Korea.  What a threat to humanity is that in the age of atomic bombs, VX poison, and other mass destruction weapons!  Is President Trump not dangerous?


In a higher view of mental evolution on Earth, one can observe how a wave of new philosophies or religions appeared from about 600 BC to the time of Jesus and, more than 600 years later, to the origin of Islam. See the origin and progress in religious/philosophical thought in ancient India, by Confucianism and Taoism in China, Buddhism in India and China, also by the development of the Scriptures of the Jewish Old Testament, and, finally, the rational philosophies of Greece after 600 BC, with rationality in world view finally being revived in our time.


In central Europe, mental development occurred in the “Scholastic” era of dialectical analysis of thought and scriptures, then the “Renaissance” of broad innovation and intellectual research and the “Enlightenment” with emphasis on rationality.  In political organization, democracy (already ancient in rural areas of the world) came into important public existence (first in Switzerland in 1291 AD, then in the United States in 1776). 


Almost as if in a contrasting response to rationality, various movements with emphasis on emotions, mainly fundamentalist religions, and the formulation or implementation of emotional “values” (some “romantic”) occurred in the 18th and 19th centuries. 


In more recent times, some eras of mental evolution with actually greater impact on human life than the above-mentioned historic ones have occurred, though they remained as yet unnamed. Possibly as a consequence of the Renaissance, more rational observation of nature and technical development began in the West (as already initiated by the Greeks, with Thales of Miletus).  With the help of Galileo and his telescope, modern astronomy opened the world of deep space.  Newton opened the mind to a view of the world in terms of physics.  Consequently, technology progressed and steam power was invented – lifting some burdens from mankind, but also starting the concept of unemployment, as among the weavers, and leading to rationality in economic thought and policy.  Transportation changed to railroads, the automobile, and airplanes.  The world became “smaller” – and more interconnected.  Human well-being improved – and so did the desire for even more!  Medical knowledge and the development of improved medications progressed especially well!

Politically, the improvement of ships and navigation led to the development of trade connections between the West and the Far East, to the discovery of America, then the control of most of the world by means of European “colonies”. 

The world became still smaller with the invention of telegraphy and radio and television.

Warfare became more dangerous with modern weapons

This led to the formation of, first, the League of Nations, then the United Nations and the European Union.    

Now, after the horrors of World War II, a still newer phase of human evolution has occurred (also not yet named) with the rapid expansion of the sciences and technology in all areas.  Space exploration led to limited space travel, though, mainly, to the development of excellent telescopes.  This development allowed the discovery and viewing of billions of galaxies all the way to the limit of our universe at about 13 billion light-years distance – and the expectation of myriad life-supporting planets out there.  Molecular biology explained the origin and functioning of life and let medical knowledge progress, especially after the finding of antibiotic materials (first “penicillin”).  Of special interest was the discovery of genetics, not only explaining much of biological evolution, but also possibly allowing mankind to influence and control its own evolution – where dangers of abuse are already being seen!  Artificial intelligence looms on the horizon.

In technology, the transistor, digital technology, and the Internet appeared, with steadily increasing computing power and instantaneous connection (free of cost) for all!  Thousands of “apps” have appeared to alleviate every need and for everybody to use.  No youngster (or old person) wants to be seen or live without an iPhone or iPad!


Has the world become one great network or unit?  (But all the new, modern dictators’ attempts to keep themselves separated – Putin, Erdogan, Assad, Khamenei, Duterte, Xi, and mainly the so very dangerous North Korean Kim Jong Un – what does not function there?)


But will a new phase of rationality and progress again be followed by a relapse into a phase of highly emotional imbalance – as the World Wars followed the 19th century?

North Korea threatens, protected by China and supported by Putin (who, thereby, want to damage America), in a triangle connected with Iran.


We actually do live in exciting times of evolution on Earth – possibly also interesting to “observe” from above!  But has it actually become a better world, one more pleasant to “observe”, be it by us or by “Eternity” from above?


This mental development of mankind in rationality led to the question whether one could still accept old beliefs in an almost anthropomorphic “God” and resulting divine guidance.  The binding and guiding forces of earlier human society resulting from traditional religions faded, and church membership declined in this new era of scientific rationality (poorly substituted by communism in China – now maintained only in order to retain national unity and the power of the ruling class, as in China, Vietnam, and other dictatorial states). 

Consequently, reliance on “old” values and rules faded, too.  With decreasing guidance for the young, consumption of addictive drugs increased (now almost a tragic epidemic – with many victims).  Some searching young people joined extremist (and violent) movements (lately the Muslim jihad), where they found a new “home” and meaning for their lives – together with the appearance of some dangerous, and nationalistic dictators, this may have become the counter-movement to the great era of advances in science and rationality during the 70 years following the last World War.


Actually, each historical phase of mental progress has had its negative counteraction.  The Scholastic period was followed by religious wars.  The rationality of the Renaissance was countered by subsequent religious wars of great cruelty.  The Enlightenment led to emotional counter-movements – Rousseau, then the Rosicrucians, the widely famous Freemasons, and, finally, the Napoleonic Wars, enthusiastically supported by the French population – as Germans supported Hitler, the Russians now Putin, and the Turks Erdogan. 

The phase of modern rationality of the 19th century was followed by the two intellectually instigated (by Churchill and Woodrow Wilson, see the essay on WW II on the websites schwab-writings) but emotionally supported World Wars, then the ideologies of Communism and National Socialism, with their horrible dictators and crimes against humanity.

The newest phase of the all-invasive sciences and the Internet brought mental clarity to previously underdeveloped areas of the world – but some political and religious leaders then feared losing control. North Korea, Zimbabwe, and, most destructively so far, Syria’s ISIS are attempting to bring the totality of their leadership or the controlled following of Allah under their personal control by means of politically restrictive systems, presented as a “blessing” to their nations – but also as a violent burden (if not atomic or VR poison danger) to the world – as demonstrated by the current wave of millions of refugees – and millions more would come if they could escape.


Besides those mental developments in the course of evolution on Earth, there now occur some dangerous side effects of our evolution:  global warming, ocean acidification, the never-ending and rapid population increase in some parts of our Earth, the epidemic use of addictive, mind-numbing drugs, and the appearance of continuously-adaptive cure-resistant diseases


The reduction of global warming and ocean acidification would require international cooperation (see the failure of cooperation among fishing communities leading to the depletion of fish stock – resolved only by the Environmental Defense Fund’s [EDF’s] concept of regional community formation among fishermen).  Unfortunately, such EDF-sponsored cooperation cannot be fully expected on the present international level (of the UN) – yet. 


Population increase requires contraception as a countermeasure – still opposed by important political forces, the Pope, and Muslim religious leaders on the basis of misinterpreted religious principles – as if God had wanted a catastrophe on Earth by way of overpopulation. 

Such an increase in population is based partially on increasing life expectancy, also requiring a solution for the increasing problem of caring for the elderly. 

Does an extreme and unbalanced population expansion mainly in the underdeveloped areas of the world lead to a form of down-breeding for mankind?  What could that lead to?


The epidemic of addictive drugs was approached by fighting the production of drugs – merely increasing their price, leading to artificial substitutes and supporting criminal suppliers.  The attempt to reduce consumption through education has not shown success either.  New ideas are urgently needed!


            The reduced acceptance of religion in the life of modern people of our time results in the problem of lacking orientation, especially in the young generation, which still searches a way through life – especially when no other rational or philosophical direction can be seen.  Then, addictive drugs too often destroy their lives.  Another temptation appears in political or religious movements offering a new spiritual home, worst for jihadist in the destructive ISIL caliphate.

            A life for modern art (including music and dance) is a weak substitute (offering only limited life-supporting income for very few) – which also counts for most types of the sports, which in turn, are effective financially only during the young years.

Some modern religions appeared during the last hundred years (and before), but mostly for the financial benefit or fame of their founders.

A positively leading, rational, and generally accepted philosophy is still needed for us – together with better world-leadership capability!



2.7.  Now, a positive view of the Evolution of Existence:


Existence is not all problematic, destructive, and full of suffering.  The worst period of cruelty, at the time of the dinosaurs, lasted only a relative short time in cosmic dimensions – about 200 million years, about only 1.5% of total evolution of existence or only 5% of Earth’s existence. 

Let us be grateful that, during the journey of our life, we can participate in this endeavor of “existence” here on Earth – where, besides all very sad suffering, there also is some evolutionary progress of human thought and behavior, also with joy and warmth to experience or share, and beauty to see!

May a new period of evolution in mental progress occur, bringing continuation of a positive “evolution” of existence here on Earth!  May this bring relief to mankind and to all of suffering nature! 

Europe has the “Ode to Joy” as its “anthem” –  an expression of hope!

In an overall view covering millions of years, natural evolution was quite positive and so was the evolution of the human mind and society. 

Does that permit us to perceive “Eternity”, “the Great Spirit”, in a positive light – as it has created the preconditions for this evolution and lets it, hopefully, progress further, while “observing” it benignly?

Can some transcendental guidance, support, and, occasionally, some intervention be hoped for? … also in our times? …




in halting some of the worst dictators, in preventing some of the worst bombings, and in clearing the minds of the ISIL and other jihadists!  ... and to avoid the worst accidents, diseases, and birth defects!!!




Section 3 :  Conclusions


3.1.  Our understanding of “God”, the expectation of “Eternity” for us humans on Earth:


How can we understand “Eternity”, God – by observing creation?


The understanding of evolution opened a new vision after the more limited view of a world of great cruelty as occurred from the time of life during the period of the dinosaurs.


What does “Eternity” expect to observe when now viewing our human life on Earth?


How can we understand and please “Eternity”, God? 


What can we contribute to creation?  What is the meaning of our lives?


The appearance of the existence, as it occurred, actually brought much ongoing violence, destruction, and cruelty.


In the long run, however, a fascinating evolution toward greater complexity appeared, finally leading most recently to the human mind, emotions, language, ethical values, and cultureaugmented by the sensation of beauty of nature, art, joy and emotional warmth – even some humor.


Could, or should, that indicate a perspective to understand “Eternity”, God and indicate the direction expected by Eternity to be taken by us humans, those now living on Earth?


Historic leaders have seldom left guiding directions for human society.


Moses’ 10 Commandments and Muhammad’s Farewell Sermon indicated practical rules for decently living together in close society. 


Neither contained guidance for education, for caring service or charity beyond taxation, or any contribution to culture, nor the importance of emotional joy or warmth. 


Jesus may have left idealistic guidance in the selection of the eight “Beatitudes” included in the Sermon on the Mount as reported by Matthew (specifically in four of them open to proactive application, see the essay on the “Beatitudes” on the website – but not including any practical guidance to society.


In our time, however, society’s priorities are in practical well-being and security – the internal and external one. 

As guiding values (besides well-being and security), education, charity, and culture rank highest in our society – with the need for self-control becoming more important as in countering the epidemic expansion of drug abuse.

The need for social balance of society remains – but often only in the background – with the need for the reduction of corruption or monetary influence on politics to be emphasized.



3.2.  Our “Goals” in Existence as part of the Evolution and in view of the dangers


What is our individual task or goal in this world? 


There actually is not a single goal for our lives (as most religions or ideologies present), but three different goals, which have to be balanced. 


There also is a rising on three levels of those goals as we are able to progress in our lives.  


This results in the following matrix ranking of human goals and values in three dimensions and on three levels:



Relating to self

      Relating to community

Special gift of life

 Highest  Level:

Mental Growth

  Personality Formation

Fulfillment, “Growth”

Caring Service & Charity

Building a Better Society

Harmony, “Service”

Joy of

Art, Nature, Life

in “Culture”



  Security and Dignity

    Reserves, Freedom

merely “Wealth”

  Positive Significance in Society, Action Potential

own “Power”




Basic         Level:

Survival, Food,

Shelter, Procreation

Help and Joy for

Family and Clan

Basic Aesthetics


ü  Our goals as relating to ourselves:  Nature expects that each living organism develop its potential as best it can – first in the mostly demanding fight for survival, food, shelter, and procreation.  Opportunities must be pursued wisely! With success in life, there is the natural desire to establish some reserves, providing freedom, also merely “wealth” – which may be a shallow goal in itself.  At the highest level, there is ongoing mental search, education, exploration and personality formation, also in higher skills.


ü  Our goals as relating to our community: Humans, as other animals living in packs or family units (as wolves), are expected to care for their immediate family or clan, even bring joy.  Beyond that, they try to reach significance in that group, possibly leadership and power … which can relate to dangerous vanity.  At best, there is the striving for caring service, charity, and building of a better society in harmony.


ü  Our goals relating to the special gifts of life in sensing aesthetics and joy: Basic decorations, rising to often shallow pleasure and “entertainment”, and reaching “culture” and emotional fulfillment at its best.


In the dimension of our personal lives, suffering and dysfunction too often prevail over beneficial progress or joyful existence – often extending to a sad ending for ourselves – equally or even more burdening when reaching a loved one. 


Therefore, our greatest effort must go into the reduction of suffering – and to increasing opportunity fairly for all – where the suffering’s own capability and, mainly, their own responsibility and effort for improvement of their own life must be strengthened – rather than only temporary hand-outs be provided.


It is inadequate to concentrate on the problems and sadness in this world.  We must instead concentrate on the positive and beautiful.  Only then can we do more to augment the positive in existence!  Then, the positive and beautiful will come more to the fore – in our own lives and for the benefit of all.


May that be our call for a fulfilled life – and bring more joy to all!



3.3.  Here is the conclusion of this writing:


Beginning with always the greatest admiration of and reverence for “Eternity”, God, Jahweh, Allah or the “Essence of Creation”, which will always remain mysterious to us:


Most importantly, arriving at the ultimate mystery and question of existence and our lives, we cannot actually understand this spiritual essence, “Eternity”, that brought forth the creation of real existence as in our universe – with all of its cruelty and suffering, but also with all of its beauty and joy. 


We do not experience how our prayers or cries for help are heard or being responded to!  Yet, from the depth of our hearts and minds we sincerely long to resonate with this Spiritual Essence, to provide a positive contribution to its creation, to please “Eternity”.


Even if too often we do not experience the recognition of our cries for help by God, or ask for God’s intervention, or can not recognize divine guidance without contradiction, there still should remain for many of us much gratitude for a bearable or good life and joy about the world!  


What is our human mission here on Earth?


We should be less destructive among ourselves or in nature and contribute actively to a “better world” on Earth – each one of us where we are!


On the level of our human society:

Find solutions to the major problems of inadequate Political Guidance, Antibiotic Resistance, Global Warming, Environmental Degrading, Overpopulation, and Drug Addiction!

Mainly, improve the quality of all political or religious governance everywhere on Earth!

Improve our personal and society’s security and economy

in the soundness of all parts and in a balanced structure of human society,

with reasonable income opportunities and some freedom for all!


In our personal lives:

            We must use greatest effort and skills to provide for ourselves and our families and can be

    grateful if our work also contributes to a better world.

We must develop our potential as all organisms in nature must

– as humans, through learning and striving as best we can

– as we long to perceive and wisely pursue all opportunities in our lives

We must, as social beings, provide caring service to our families, clans, or mankind

– and also to nature!

– We must attempt to reduce suffering and increase opportunity fairly for all

                     by direct help where needed,

         better, by strengthening the own effort of the suffering ones.

We can develop culture

           – by enjoying beauty in nature and the arts and warmth in human contact

Most importantly, may there be, and may we share, more joy and emotional warmth in our

lives! … and, maybe, a little bit of humor, too?


Let us start working for a better world right now!


And beware – we may be watched!                            see the beginning of this essay!







3.4. My Contributions: View of the Universe in Evolution and our Survival Dangers


What were the contributions of my writings to our lives, our thoughts, and our direction?


The original essays on the website (more than 30 essays) provide a presently valid overview and analysis of “existence” from its physical origin 13.5 billion years ago, through the development of the human mind, society, and religions, to now specific historic developments (as the World Wars and to some new political leaders in the USA).

The conclusion by this essay consists of a new or wider view of our universe and our lives within it.  Different from other historic “philosophies” (from the times of the ancient Greeks on), emphasis was put on a view of existence in ”evolution” – from the earliest times of natural history 13.5 billion years ago  to the most recent path of our universe and life on Earth and within human society –  at an accelerating pace – with dangers to our existence through extinction!

These distinct major dangers to the continuation of our human existence here on Earth were listed – and the need for coordinated preventive action emphasized – if such international coordination could ever be accomplished. 


The leading danger is presented as being the limited capabilities of political leaders to creatively cooperate (and by our political system favoring adversity).  The other dangers include the general pollution of our environment, global warming, and population increase.

Specifically new among the listed dangers is the appearance of antibiotic-resistant biological formations.  These are not only germs resulting in treatment resistant diseases (as some Tuberculosis and others), but also fungi – together letting large scale agriculture and provision of food or health for mankind appear endangered.


Some basic thoughts are presented how only highest level of international strategic and basic tactical coordination may have a chance to resist some of those dangers.  Historic examples of increasing voluntary political coordination in society through the centuries are mentioned as role models (the formation of Switzerland, modern Germany, and the USA).


This essay failed to reach clarity about the “ultimate creative essence in existence”, “God”, or “Eternity” – in view, on one side, of our universe’s evolution in a positive direction and the appearance of various positive cultures and religions (specifically Christianity), but, on the other side, also in view of the immense cruelty and suffering still burdening all life, specifically humans. 

Fundamental for us should be the greatest admiration and dedication to this divine “Eternity” in a positive evolution – and hope for some positive resonance for our “souls” – as in times of our own need for support or positive guidance (not only at our advancing age, myself now at 90 ½), but also in compassion with others, primarily those close to us. 


We, specifically also our political leaders and we, personally, must attempt to contribute positively to the world we live in – as in reducing suffering, augmenting opportunities, stimulating positive initiative without strife, and in contributing some harmony, light and warmth to our environment – with joy and, at times, with a little bit of humor.      


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